The nation's air quality standards may not be stringent enough to protect children in inner cities who have asthma, according to new research funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency.
9 million school-age children in America have asthma.
Here's how the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases described the research:
Using data collected from the NIAID Inner-City Asthma Study (ICAS), researchers examined 861 children with persistent asthma, aged 5 to 12 years, living in low-income areas in seven U.S. inner-city communities: Boston, the Bronx, Chicago, Dallas, New York City, Seattle and Tucson. Over two years, the researchers regularly monitored the childrens asthma symptoms, breathing function, and school absences, and obtained daily outdoor pollution measurements from the EPAs Aerometric Information Retrieval System. Every six months, they tested lung function twice-daily over a two-week period. They also asked the childrens parents for their observations of their childrens symptoms.
Results revealed that children had significantly decreased lung function following exposure to higher concentrations of the air pollutants sulfur dioxide, airborne fine particles, and nitrogen dioxide. Higher nitrogen dioxide levels and higher levels of fine particles also were associated with school absences related to asthma, and higher nitrogen dioxide levels were associated with more asthma symptoms. Because nitrogen dioxide is derived mainly from motor vehicle exhaust, these data provide evidence that car emissions may be causing adverse respiratory health effects in these urban children who have asthma.
Previous studies have documented the adverse respiratory effects of very high levels of outdoor pollutants. However, this study involves a larger cohort of inner-city asthmatic children and a more comprehensive evaluation of respiratory health effects than prior studies of this type. The studys authors report that inner-city children with asthma experience adverse health effects from air pollutants even when air pollution levels are within the current air quality standards of the Environmental Protection Agency. These findings raise questions about the current air quality standards and suggest that part of overall asthma management for children living in inner cities may need to include efforts to reduce exposure to air pollutants.
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